Müllerian anomalies or uterine abnormalities are one of the main causes of infertility in women. Uterine abnormality affects one in twenty women and depending on the level of the deformity the success rate of pregnancy is determined. Generally, these uterine deformities come to light only when a woman is diagnosed to be infertile or has had numerous miscarriages before.
Uterine Abnormalities and Infertility
The abnormal development of uterus is associated with the improper fusion of Müllerian ducts which leads to deformed development of uterus. Such uterine abnormalities causes infertility in women as the uterus is unable to support the growing embryo to implant itself with the uterine walls.
Müllerian duct deformity that leads to uterine abnormalities occurs due to the following reasons:
- Exposure to radiation during pregnancy
- Intrauterine infections
- Substances like diethylstilbestrol (DES) that causes malformation in the embryo or fetus
Indeed, uterine abnormalities are related to infertility.
Repeated Miscarriages due to a Malformed Uterus
A malformed uterus cannot support a growing embryo and often leads to miscarriage, and repeated miscarriages can make a woman infertile. A woman identified with Müllerian agenesis, a case where the uterus is absent, conception and sexual intercourse become physically painful and extremely difficult. In other cases, even if the fertility of a woman remains unaffected, chances of conceiving are difficult.
Presence of a Rudimentary Horn in the Uterus
Another uterine abnormality is the presence of a rudimentary horn in the uterus, with no outlet for the menstrual blood to exit the body. In the case of an obstructed menstrual flow, women experience extremely painful menses. If medical treatment is not sought, the blood keeps accumulating inside the uterus leading to uterine infections, and in worst case infertility or repeated miscarriages and abnormal bleeding.
Unicornuate and Bicornuate Uterus
Unicornuate and bicornuate uterus also leads to high level of miscarriages or preterm deliveries in women, allowing them to have children successfully only through in vitro fertilisation treatment method.
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