The proper functioning of the sperm cells in the main factor related to male fertility. The quantity, quality, and mobility of sperm determine fertility in men. There are several factors and conditions that can impact the functioning of sperm and result in male infertility. Following are some of the primary reasons for male infertility:

Absence of Sperm

When there is no sperm present in the semen of the male, there can be no question of natural conception. This condition is known as Azoospermia. It may happen due to the body not producing sperm or a blockage in the ejaculatory ducts that prevent sperm from flowing out of the testicles for ejaculation.

Low Sperm Count

If the number of sperm cells released in ejaculation is very less, the chances of fertilisation are reduced. The low sperm count condition is also known as Oligospermia. This can happen due to low production of sperm or a partial obstruction in the ejaculatory ducts that prevents their release during ejaculation.

The Absence of the Vas Deferens

In this condition, the vas deferens or the duct that carries sperm from the testicle to the penis does not develop after birth. Men with this condition cannot ejaculate the sperm even if they may be producing healthy sperm in the testes. As a result, the chance of natural pregnancy remains nil.

Obstruction in the Ejaculatory Duct

Sometimes, there may be a blockage or obstruction in a man's ejaculatory ducts. Ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO) may happen due to an infection or injury, or it may be an inborn issue. Regardless of the cause of EDO, it often becomes a reason for male infertility.

Development of Varicoceles

A varicocele means an enlargement of the veins in the scrotum. Such a condition impacts the reproductive function in many ways and can result in low sperm production, inferior quality of sperm, and obstruction in sperm travel. Each of these factors can lead to infertility.

Poor Sperm Motility

At times, the issue is not the quantity but the quality of sperm. A man may be producing sperm in adequate quantity, but there may be issues regarding their shape or motility. As such, the sperm may not be able to reach or penetrate the egg with ease.

Erectile Dysfunction

When a man isn't able to achieve or maintain an erection, conceiving may become very difficult. Erectile dysfunction may occur due to a number of reasons, including medical issues.

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