What are the Causes of Pain or Swelling in Testicles? Can It Lead to Infertility?

What are the Causes of Pain or Swelling in Testicles? Can It Lead to Infertility?

The male reproductive gland that produces sperm and testosterone are known as testicles. They play a very important role in male fertility. Swelling and pain in the testicles can be caused by many factors. Some of these factors can impact fertility while others have no effect on a man's ability to procreate. To be on the safe side, medical help should always be sought for any sort of testicular pain or inflammation.

Common Causes of Swelling in Testicles and Pain in the Testicles

Physical Trauma

The testicles are very sensitive to any kind of physical trauma. A blow to the testicles can often result in severe pain. This is usually temporary and is relieved by itself. However, if the pain does not subside or if it is accompanied by swelling and bruising of the testes and scrotal area, medical attention should be sought. In rare cases, a bad injury can cause blood to leak into the scrotum. In such cases, surgery may be needed to prevent infertility.

Testicular Torsion

This is a condition wherein the testicle twists itself inside the scrotum. It may happen as a result of physical trauma or occur spontaneously. The twisting of the testicle can interfere with blood flow to the testicle and even result in the ‘death' of a testicle. It is possible that pain in testicles leads to infertility in such cases. Hence, surgery is usually needed to treat the condition. Newborns and children between the ages of 12-18 years have the highest risk of testicular torsion.


This refers to inflammation of the epididymis. It is usually the result of an infection and is the most common cause of testicular pain in men older than 18 years of age. In many cases, this is caused by a sexually transmitted disease such as Chlamydia or Gonorrhea. If left untreated, this condition can result in the formation of scar tissue around the testicles. This may, in turn, prevent sperm from leaving the testicles and cause infertility.

Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer can cause swelling in either testicles or the development of a lump on the testicles. This is often accompanied by pain. This type of cancer can be treated. Even if one testicle needs to be removed during the treatment, the other testicle will still produce sperm and thus the man may father children in the future.

Testicular pain and swelling may also be caused by an inguinal hernia, kidney stones and testicular tumours.