What is Sperm Donation?
In the Sperm donation process, a man donates his semen and the sperm from his semen is later used to help someone have a baby. Donated sperm can be used in Assisted Reproductive Technology in two processes. One is called Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) which involves placing the donated sperm sample after processing, inside a woman's uterus to facilitate fertilization. In the other method, called In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), the donated sperm is used for fertilizing healthy and mature ova in the IVF laboratory and then transferring the embryo/s into a woman's uterus. The use of donated sperm to enable an infertile individual or couple (known as the recipient) to become parents is referred to as third party reproduction.
Before sperm donation, the donor's medical conditions and other risks are evaluated through a series of tests. Medical history of at least two generations is taken into consideration and presence of a hereditary disease disqualifies a person from becoming a donor. Most sperm banks allow donors between the age of 18 and 35. The donor's blood sample is tested for certain genetic conditions and for infectious diseases and his semen sample is tested for the quantity, quality and motility of sperm.
The donor's personal and sexual history and his educational qualification, occupation, and other interests are documented. After the screening process, before the sperm donation, all donors have to sign an informed consent.
Who Needs a Sperm Donor?
Availability of donor sperm is a boon for women who do not have a male partner but wish to conceive and raise a child and for couples who struggle with male infertility