What is Teratospermia?
Teratospermia is a condition that involves sperm cells with abnormal morphology. This affects fertility and is one of the causes of male infertility. Abnormal sperms are found in most men and the problem arises when the number of abnormal cells are on the higher side. These sperm cells can not be able to penetrate the egg and fertilise, causing infertility. Teratospermia can be diagnosed with a morphological examination of sperms form the difference in the shape as compared to normal sperm cells.
The causes for this disease are unknown but are commonly connected to diseases such as Hodgkin's disease, coeliac disease, and Crohn's disease. Lifestyle habits such as smoking or drugs can affect sperm morphology as well. Detailed analysis of the sperm cells has to be done before deciding any treatment methods.
To assess sperm morphology, the parts of a sperm cell are studied and analyzed. The head of the sperm cell is ideally shaped oval and has a well-curved cap on the head. The mid-piece that is situated between the head and the tail and should have a thickness that moderates between the two parts it connects. The tail of the cell should be adequately long. Differences in the shape of the sperm is called as teratospermia and common problems noticed are, double-headed sperm, abnormal headed or cells without midpiece.
Types of Teratospermia
This condition is classified into three types based on severity -normal, moderate and severe teratospermia. In normal teratospermia the normal sperm cells found are up to 14%. In case of the moderate case, 5 to 9 percent of sperms will be of normal quality. In conditions where teratospermia is severe, only 4% of sperm cells tend to be normal.
Men affected by this condition have a higher chance of being infertile. However, with the help of assistive reproductive technologies and procedures such as artificial insemination, IVF and ICSI, individuals affected with this condition can father a child.