Finding the root cause of oligospermia or low sperm count is not easy. To get a proper and effective treatment it is important to find the cause of this medical condition. Let's discuss the various causes of oligospermia below:

Ejaculatory Issues

When semen instead of flowing out of the penis, reverses back to the bladder, then it is known as retrograde ejaculation. This condition can reduce the sperm counts and cause infertility in men.

Hormonal Imbalances

The hormones required for sperm production are produced by the hypothalamus and pituitary glands. The sperm production gets impaired if any alteration occurs in these hormones.

Undescended Testicles

Men born with this condition are unlikely to be fertile. If during fetal development, the testicles do not descend from the abdomen into the sac that forms the scrotum, then the fertility of that person gets hampered.

Anti-sperm Antibodies

Certain immune system cells known as anti-sperm antibodies tend to kill the sperm cells by mistakenly identifying them as harmful invaders causing low sperm count.


Obstruction is one of the major causes of oligospermia. The tubes that carry sperm, if gets blocked by some abnormal developments like cystic fibrosis or any injury due to prior surgeries and infections, can lead to a low flow of semen.

Chromosomal Abnormalities

Certain genetic disorders like Klinefelter's syndrome, Kallmann's syndrome and Kartagener' syndrome can cause abnormal development in the male reproductive organs.

Varicocele, Infection or Tumour

The sperm production gets hampered if any of the male reproductive organs are affected by any infection, tumor or varicocele, etc.

Surgical Trauma

Some surgeries like vasectomy, hernia repair surgery, scrotal surgeries, prostate surgeries, etc. can reduce the sperm count in your ejaculate.


Certain medicines like antifungal, antibiotic, ulcer medicines, chemotherapy drugs, testosterone replacement therapy etc. can impair sperm production in one's body.

Environmental Causes

Exposure to chemicals, radiation, and heavy metals can reduce sperm production.

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